Science


Outline • CARMENES science case outline
Planets • Exoplanets discovered by CARMENES
Refereed publications • Papers in refereed journals (A&A, ApJ, Nature, Science)
SPIE • Contributions at SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation
PhD theses • Doctoral theses on CARMENES in Universities in Spain, Germany and UK
Old links • Deprecated tables (conferences, M-dwarf encyclopaedia) updated until 2016


Outline

Since 01 Jan 2016, CARMENES (Quirrenbach et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..12Q) is conducting a 750-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs, including TESS targets, during Guaranteed Time Observations. The main scientific objective of CARMENES is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones. In the focus of the project are very cool dwarf stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2 MEarth planet in the habitable zone of an M5 V star, which requires a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s-1 per measurement. For stars later than M4 V (M < 0.25 Msol), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5 MEarth and smaller inside the entire width of the habitable zone. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.

At the same time, the CARMENES survey will generate a unique data set for studies of M dwarf star atmospheres, rotation, and activity. The spectra will cover important diagnostic lines for activity (Hα, Na I D1 and D2, and the Ca II infrared triplet), as well as FeH lines around 10,000 Å, from which the magnetic field can be inferred. Correlating the time series of these features with each other, and with wavelength-dependent radial velocities, will provide new insight into the physical properties of M dwarf atmospheres, and will provide excellent discrimination between planetary companions and stellar radial velocity "noise".



CARMENES planets

Star GJ d [pc] Sp.
type
Planet Porb
[d]
M2sini
[M]
Reference Remark
LP 90-18 (GJ 3512) 3512 9.489 M5.5 V b 203.59 147 Morales et al. 2019Sci...365.1441M Giant exoplanet around tiny star 'should not exist'
c >1390 >54
GJ 357 357 9.444 M2.5 V b 3.93072 1.84 Luque et al. 2019A&A...628A..39L Two super-earths (one habitable) and an amazing transiting exoearth
c 9.1247 3.4
d 55.661 6.1
LSPM J2116+0234 ... 17.639 M3.0 V b 14.451 13.6 Lalitha, Baroch et al. 2019A&A...627A.116L ...
Teegarden's ... 3.831 M7.0 V b 4.9100 1.05 Zechmeister et al. 2019A&A...627A..49Z The two most Earth-like planets found yet (and around an ultracool dwarf)
c 11.409 1.11
BD+61 195 49 9.856 M1.5 V b 13.851 5.6 Perger et al. 2019A&A...624A.123P A HADES-CARMENES collaboration
K2-285 ... 156 K2 V b* 3.47175 9.7 Pallé et al. 2019A&A...623A..41P A star with four transiting planets
c* 7.13804 16
d* 10.4560 <6.5
e* 14.7634 <10.7
HD 119130 ... 114.3 G3 V b* 16.9841 24 Luque et al. 2019A&A...628A..39L Ultra-dense Neptune aroun Sun-like star K2-292
G 232-70 4276 21.35 M4.0 V b 13.350 15.6 Nagel et al. 2019A&A...622A.153N One eccentric planet or two planets in a 2:1 resonance?
Barnard's 699 1.827 M3.5 V b 232.8 3.2 Ribas et al. 2018Natur.563..365R Cool super-earth around closest single star to Sun
Ross 1020 3779 13.748 M4.0 V b 3.0232 8.0 Luque et al. 2018A&A...620A.171L Two identical planets around two identical stars
LP 819-052 1265 10.255 M4.5 V b 3.6511 7.4
HD 180617 752 A 5.912 M2.5 V b 105.90 12.2 Kaminski et al. 2018A&A...618A.115K GJ 752 B = vB 10 (M8.0 V)
HD 147379 617 A 10.74 M0.0 V b 86.54 24.7 Reiners et al. 2018A&A...609L...5R First CARMENES-only planet
Ross 1033 1148 11.00 M4.0 V c 533 68 Trifonov et al. 2018A&A...609A.117T New additional planets
GX And 15 A 3.562 M1.0 V c 7800 50

Planets discovered by CARMENES to date: 17 GTO and 5 non-GTO (marked with *). See also other planets confirmed by CARMENES:



Refereed publications

N Title Authors ADS link
39 A giant exoplanet orbiting a very-low-mass star challenges planet formation models J. C. Morales, A. J. Mustill, I. Ribas et al. 2019Sci...365.1441M
38 Water vapor detection in the transmission spectra of HD 209458 b with the CARMENES NIR channel A. Sánchez-López, F. J. Alonso-Floriano, M. López-Puertas et al. 2019A&A...630A..53S
37 He I λ10830 Å in the transmission spectrum of HD 209458 b F. J. Alonso-Floriano, I. A. G. Snellen, S. Czesla et al. 2019A&A...629A.110A
36 Stellar activity analysis of Barnard's Star: very slow rotation and evidence for long-term activity cycle B. Toledo-Padrón, J. I. González Hernández, C. Rodríguez-López et al. 2019MNRAS.488.5145T
35 Planetary system around the nearby M dwarf GJ 357 including a transiting, hot, Earth-sized planet optimal for atmospheric characterization R. Luque, E. Pallé, D. Kossakowski et al. 2019A&A...628A..39L
34 Atmospheric characterization of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-2b/KELT-20b. Detection of Ca II, Fe II, Na I, and the Balmer series of H (Hα, Hβ, and Hγ) with high-dispersion transit spectroscopy N. Casasayas-Barris, E. Pallé,F. Yan et al. 2019A&A...628A...9C
33 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines V. M. Passegger, A. Schweitzer, D. Shulyak et al. 2019A&A...627A.161P
32 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Detection of a mini-Neptune around LSPM J2116+0234 and refinement of orbital parameters of a super-Earth around GJ 686 (BD+18 3421) S. Lalitha, D. Baroch, J. C. Morales et al. 2019A&A...627A.116L
31 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Two temperate Earth-mass planet candidates around Teegarden's Star M. Zechmeister, S. Dreizler, I. Ribas et al. 2019A&A...627A..49Z
30 Magnetic fields in M dwarfs from the CARMENES survey D. Shulyak, A. Reiners, E. Nagel et al. 2019A&A...626A..86S
29 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Different roads to radii and masses of the target stars A. Schweitzer, V. M. Passegger, C. Cifuentes et al. 2019A&A...625A..68S
28 Gliese 49: activity evolution and detection of a super-Earth. A HADES and CARMENES collaboration M. Perger, G. Scandariato, I. Ribas et al. 2019A&A...624A.123P
27 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Chromospheric modeling of M 2-3 V stars with PHOENIX D. Hintz, B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla et al. 2019A&A...623A.136H
26 Detection and characterization of an ultra-dense sub-Neptunian planet orbiting the Sun-like star K2-292 R. Luque, G. Nowak, E. Pallé et al. 2019A&A...623A.114L
25 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Activity indicators at visible and near-infrared wavelengths R. Schöfer, S. V. Jeffers, A. Reiners et al. 2019A&A...623A..44S
24 Detection and Doppler monitoring of K2-285 (EPIC 246471491), a system of four transiting planets smaller than Neptune E. Pallé, G. Nowak, R. Luque et al. 2019A&A...623A..41P
23 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Period search in Hα, Na I D, and Ca II IRT lines B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla, J. H. M. M. Schmitt et al. 2019A&A...623A..24F
22 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The enigmatic planetary system GJ 4276: one eccentric planet or two planets in a 2:1 resonance? E. Nagel, S. Czesla, J. H. M. M. Schmitt et al. 2019A&A...622A.153N
21 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. IV. New rotation periods from photometric time series E. Díez Alonso, J. A. Caballero, D. Montes et al. 2019A&A...621A.126D
20 Multiple water band detections in the CARMENES near-infrared transmission spectrum of HD 189733 b F. J. Alonso-Floriano, A. Sánchez-López, I. A. G. Snellen et al. 2019A&A...621A..74A
18 Ground-based detection of an extended helium atmosphere in the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-69b L. Nortmann, E. Pallé, M. Saltz et al. 2018Sci...362.1388N
18 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The warm super-Earths in twin orbits around the mid-type M dwarfs Ross 1020 (GJ 3779) and LP 819-052 (GJ 1265) R. Luque, G. Nowak, E. Pallé et al. 2018A&A...620A.171L
17 Detection of He I λ10830 Å absorption on HD 189733 b with CARMENES high-resolution transmission spectroscopy M. Salz, S. Czesla, P. C. Schneider et al. 2018A&A...620A..97S
16 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Nine new double-line spectroscopic binary stars D. Baroch, J. C. Morales, I. Ribas. et al. 2018A&A...619A..32B
15 A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard's star I. Ribas, M. Tuomi, A. Reiners et al. 2018Natur.563..365R
14 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. A Neptune-mass planet traversing the habitable zone around HD 180617 A. Kaminski, T. Trifonov, J. A. Caballero et al. 2018A&A...618A.115K
13 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Wing asymmetries of Hα, Na I D, and He I lines B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla, J. H. M. M. Schmitt et al. 2018A&A...615A..14F
12 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy V. M. Passegger, A. Reiners, S. V. Jeffers et al. 2018A&A...615A...6P
11 An extended hydrogen envelope of the extremely hot giant exoplanet KELT-9b F. Yan & T. Henning 2018NatAs...2..714Y
10 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Radial-velocity variations of active stars in visual-channel spectra L. Tal-Or, M. Zechmeister, A. Reiners et al. 2018A&A...614A.122T
9 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. III. Rotation and activity from high-resolution spectroscopic observations S. V. Jeffers, P. Schöfer, A. Lamert et al. 2018A&A...614A..76J
8 The CARMENES Search for Exoplanets around M Dwarfs. A Low-mass Planet in the Temperate Zone of the Nearby K2-18 P. Sarkis, T. Henning, M. Kürster et al. 2018AJ....155..257S
7 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars A. Reiners, M. Zechmeister, J. A. Caballero et al. 2018A&A...612A..49R
6 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. First visual-channel radial-velocity measurements and orbital parameter updates of seven M-dwarf planetary systems T. Trifonov, M. Kürster, M. Zechmeister et al. 2018A&A...609A.117T
5 Spectrum radial velocity analyser (SERVAL). High-precision radial velocities and two alternative spectral indicators M. Zechmeister, A. Reiners, P. J. Amado et al. 2018A&A...609A..12Z
4 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. HD147379 b: A nearby Neptune in the temperate zone of an early-M dwarf A. Reiners, I. Ribas, M. Zechmeister et al. 2018A&A...609L...5R
3 Efficient scheduling of astronomical observations. Application to the CARMENES radial-velocity survey A. Garcia-Piquer, J. C. Morales, I. Ribas et al. 2017A&A...604A..87G
2 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. II. High-resolution imaging with FastCam M. Cortés-Contreras, V. J. S. Béjar, J. A. Caballero et al. 2017A&A...597A..47C
1 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS F. J. Alonso-Floriano, J. C. Morales, J. A. Caballero et al. 2015A&A...577A.128A

See also other publications by authors outside the CARMENES consortium:



SPIE contributions

Title Authors ADS link
CARMENES: high-resolution spectra and precise radial velocities in the red and infrared A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, I. Ribas et al. 2018SPIE10702E..0WQ
Two Fabry-Pérots and two calibration units for CARMENES S. Schäfer, E. W. Guenther, A. Reiners et al. 2018SPIE10702E..76S
Physical modeling of echelle spectrographs: the CARMENES case study M. Tala Pinto, A. Chanumolu, A. Quirrenbach et al. 2018SPIE10705E..1UP
CARMENES: an overview six months after first light A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, J. A. Caballero et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..12Q
CARMENES: the VIS channel spectrograph in operation W. Seifert, W. Xu, O. Stahl et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..65S
CARMENES: interlocks or the importance of process visualization and system diagnostics in complex astronomical instruments J. Helmling, K. Wagner, L. Hernández et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..6BH
CARMENES: how to achieve the full AIV at system level of a cryo-instrument in nine months S. Becerril, M. C. Cárdenas, P. J. Amado et al. 2016SPIE.9910E..0QB
CARMENES: data flow J. A. Caballero, J. Guàrdia, M. López del Fresno et al. 2016SPIE.9910E..0EC
CARMENES: management of a schedule-driven project M. L. García-Vargas, J. A. Caballero, A. Pérez-Calpena et al. 2016SPIE.9911E..0PG
CARMENES: system engineering A. Pérez-Calpena, W. Seifert, P. J. Amado et al. 2016SPIE.9911E..20P
CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph cooling system AIV: thermo-mechanical performance of the instrument S. Becerril, E. Mirabet, J.-L. Lizon et al. 2016SPIE.9912E..62B
CARMENES: instrument control software suite J. Colomé, J. Guàrdia, H.-J. Hagen et al. 2016SPIE.9913E..34C
CARMENES instrument overview A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, J. A. Caballero et al. 2014SPIE.9147E..1FQ
CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler Á. García-Piquer, J. Guàrdia, J. Colomé et al. 2014SPIE.9152E..21G
CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results E. Mirabet, P. Carvas, J.-L. Lizon et al. 2014SPIE.9151E..3YM
Characterizing U-Ne hollow cathode lamps at near-infrared wavelengths for the CARMENES survey L. F. Sarmiento, A. Reiners, U. Seemann et al. 2014SPIE.9147E..54S
Building a fibre link for CARMENES J. Stürmer, O. Stahl, C. Schwab et al. 2014SPIE.9151E..52S
CARMENES. I: instrument and survey overview A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, W. Seifert et al. 2012SPIE.8446E..0RQ
CARMENES. II: optical and opto-mechanical design W. Seifert, M. A. Sánchez Carrasco, W. Xu et al. 2012SPIE.8446..E33
CARMENES. III: an innovative and challenging cooling system for an ultra-stable NIR spectrograph S. Becerril, J.-L. Lizon, M. C. Cárdenas et al. 2012SPIE.8450E..4LB
CARMENES. IV: instrument control software J. Guàrdia, J. Colomé, I. Ribas et al. 2012SPIE.8451E..2SG
CARMENES. V: non-cryogenic solutions for YJH-band NIR instruments P. J. Amado, R. Lenzen, M. C. Cárdenas et al. 2012SPIE.8450E..1UA
CARMENES: Calar Alto high-resolution search for M dwarfs with exo-earths with a near-infrared Echelle spectrograph A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, H. Mandel et al. 2010SPIE.7735E..37Q
Comprehensive transient-state study for CARMENES-NIR high thermal stability S. Becerril, M. A. Sánchez, M. C. Cárdenas et al. 2010SPIE.7735E..95B


PhD theses

PhD
Name Title Supervisor University Date
John B. P. Strachan ... Anglada-Escudé Queen Mary University of London [201X]
Sepideh Sadegi Improving the Doppler detection of planets around M dwarfs and K giants using spectral information Reffert, Quirrenbach, Kürster Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg [2019]
Patrick Schöfer Activity of M Dwarfs in the CARMENES sample Reiners & Dreizler Georg-August-Universität Göttingen [2018]
Evangelos Nagel Determination of atmospheric parameters in M dwarf stars Schmitt Universität Hamburg [2017]
Enrique Díez-Alonso Determinación de periodos de rotación de estrellas enanas de tipo espectral M y búsqueda y caracterización de sistemas planetarios con técnicas fotométricas Montes & de Cos Juez Universidad Complutense de Madrid Jul. 2019
Marcelo
Tala Pinto
Perspectives of the radial velocity method: physical modeling of the wavelength solution & exoplanetary detections around giant stars Quirrenbach Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Jul. 2019
Luis F. Sarmiento Hollow cathode lamps characterization Reiners & Huke Georg-August-Universität Göttingen [2017]
Florian F. Bauer Radial velocities in low mass stars Reiners & Jeffers Georg-August-Universität Göttingen [Dec. 2016]
Vera M. Passegger Characterisation of star-planet systems Reiners & Jeffers Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Apr. 2017
Zaira M. Berdiñas Radial velocity fiber-fed spectrographs towards the discovery of compact planets and pulsations on M stars Amado & Anglada-Escudé Universidad de Granada [Nov. 2016]
Miriam Cortés-Contreras CARMENES-UCM: scientific preparation, multiplicity, chromospheric activity and kinematics Caballero & Montes Universidad Complutense de Madrid Nov. 2016
F. Javier Alonso-Floriano CARMENES science preparation: characterization of M dwarfs with low-resolution spectroscopy and search for low-mass wide companions to young stars Montes & Caballero Universidad Complutense de Madrid Nov. 2015
Sebastian Schäfer Fabry-Pérot etalons for high precision radial velocity calibration Reiners & Dreizler Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Apr. 2014

Besides, 15+3 MSc and 4+1 BSc theses are listed in the Private area



Deprecated links

Links to conference proceedings tabulated by ADS, The M-dwarf exoplanet encyclopaedia and past conferences, workshops, schools and seminars related to CARMENES (until 2016)