Science


Outline • CARMENES science case outline
Planets • Exoplanets discovered by CARMENES
Refereed publications • Papers in refereed journals (A&A, ApJ, Nature, Science)
SPIE • Contributions at SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation
PhD theses • Doctoral theses on CARMENES in Universities in Spain, Germany and UK
Old links • Deprecated tables (conferences, M-dwarf encyclopaedia) updated until 2016


Outline

Since 01 Jan 2016, CARMENES (Quirrenbach et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..12Q) is conducting a 750-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs, including TESS targets, during Guaranteed Time Observations. The main scientific objective of CARMENES is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones. In the focus of the project are very cool dwarf stars later than spectral type M4 V and moderately active stars. We are able to detect a 2 MEarth planet in the habitable zone of an M5 V star, which requires a long-term radial velocity precision of 1 m s-1 per measurement. For stars later than M4 V (M < 0.25 Msol), such precision yields detections of super-Earths of 5 MEarth and smaller inside the entire width of the habitable zone. The CARMENES survey is thus providing a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it provides a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.

At the same time, the CARMENES survey generates a unique data set for studies of M dwarf star atmospheres, rotation, and activity. The spectra cover important diagnostic lines for activity (Hα, Na I D1 and D2, and the Ca II infrared triplet), as well as FeH lines around 10,000 Å, from which the magnetic field can be inferred. Correlating the time series of these features with each other, and with wavelength-dependent radial velocities, provides new insight into the physical properties of M dwarf atmospheres, and provides excellent discrimination between planetary companions and stellar radial velocity "noise".



CARMENES planets

Star GJ d [pc] Sp.
type
Planet Porb
[d]
M2sini
[M]
Reference Remark
LP 729-54 ... 22.00 M3.5 V b 0.768377 2.34 (TESS) Nowak et al. 2020arXiv200301140N A pair of transiting super-Earth and sub-Neptune
c 12.252131 6.29 (TESS)
TOI-1235 ... 39.680 M0.5 V b 3.444717 5.90 (TESS) Bluhm et al. 2020arXiv200406218B A transiting super-Earth
CD Cet 1057 8.069 M5.0 V b 2.29070 3.95 Bauer et al. 2020arXiv200601684B A super-Earth in the near infrared
HD 79211 338 B 6.334 M0.0 V b 24.45 10.0 González-Álvarez et al. 2020A&A...637A..93G A super-Earth in a nearby twin binary system
TYC 6170-95-1 (EPIC 249893012) ... 325 G8 IV/V b* 3.5949 8.8 (K2) Hidalgo et al. 2020A&A...636A..89H A super-Earth and two sub-Neptunes transiting an evolved star
c* 15.624 14.7 (K2)
d* 35.747 10 (K2)
LP 90-18 (GJ 3512) 3512 9.489 M5.5 V b 203.59 147 Morales et al. 2019Sci...365.1441M Giant exoplanet around tiny star 'should not exist'
c >1390 >54
GJ 357 357 9.444 M2.5 V b 3.93072 1.84 (TESS) Luque et al. 2019A&A...628A..39L Two super-earths (one habitable) and an amazing transiting exoearth
c 9.1247 3.4
d 55.661 6.1
LSPM J2116+0234 ... 17.639 M3.0 V b 14.451 13.6 Lalitha, Baroch et al. 2019A&A...627A.116L A sub-Neptune
Teegarden's ... 3.831 M7.0 V b 4.9100 1.05 Zechmeister et al. 2019A&A...627A..49Z The two most Earth-like planets found yet (and around an ultracool dwarf)
c 11.409 1.11
BD+61 195 49 9.856 M1.5 V b 13.851 5.6 Perger et al. 2019A&A...624A.123P A HADES-CARMENES collaboration
K2-285 ... 156 K2 V b* 3.47175 9.7 (K2) Pallé et al. 2019A&A...623A..41P A star with four transiting planets
c* 7.13804 16 (K2)
d* 10.4560 <6.5 (K2)
e* 14.7634 <10.7 (K2)
HD 119130 ... 114.3 G3 V b* 16.9841 24 Luque et al. 2019A&A...628A..39L Ultra-dense Neptune aroun Sun-like star K2-292
G 232-70 4276 21.35 M4.0 V b 13.350 15.6 Nagel et al. 2019A&A...622A.153N One eccentric planet or two planets in a 2:1 resonance?
Barnard's 699 1.827 M3.5 V b 232.8 3.2 Ribas et al. 2018Natur.563..365R Cool super-earth around closest single star to Sun
Ross 1020 3779 13.748 M4.0 V b 3.0232 8.0 Luque et al. 2018A&A...620A.171L Two identical planets around two identical stars
LP 819-052 1265 10.255 M4.5 V b 3.6511 7.4
HD 180617 752 A 5.912 M2.5 V b 105.90 12.2 Kaminski et al. 2018A&A...618A.115K GJ 752 B = vB 10 (M8.0 V)
HD 147379 617 A 10.74 M0.0 V b 86.54 24.7 Reiners et al. 2018A&A...609L...5R First CARMENES-only planet
Ross 1003 1148 11.00 M4.0 V c 533 68 Trifonov et al. 2018A&A...609A.117T New additional planet candidates
GX And 15 A 3.562 M1.0 V c 7800 50

Planets discovered by CARMENES to date: 22 GTO and 8 non-GTO (marked with *). See also other 17 planets confirmed by CARMENES:



Refereed publications

N Title Authors ADS link
55 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Two planets on the opposite sides of the radius gap transiting the nearby M dwarf LP 729-54 G. Nowak, R. Luque, H. Parviainen et al. 2020arXiv200301140N
54 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Convective shift and starspot constraints from chromatic radial velocities D. Baroch, J. C. Morales, I. Ribas et al. ...
53 Precise mass and radius of a transiting super-Earth planet orbiting the M dwarf TOI-1235: a planet in the radius gap? P. Bluhm, R. Luque, N. Espinoza et al. 2020arXiv200406218B
52 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Variability of the He I line at 10830 Å B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla, L. Hildebrandt et al. 2020arXiv200609372F
51 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Measuring precise radial velocities in the near infrared: the example of the super-Earth CD Cet b F. F. Bauer, M. Zechmeister, A. Kaminski et al. 2020arXiv200601684B
50 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The He I infrared triplet lines in PHOENIX models of M2-3 V stars D. Hintz, B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla et al. 2020, A&A, 638, A115
49 A He I upper atmosphere around the warm Neptune GJ 3470 b E. Pallé, L. Nortmann, N. Casasayas-Barris et al. 2020A&A...638A..61P
48 Three planets transiting the evolved star EPIC 249893012: a hot 8.8-M super-Earth and two warm 14.7 and 10.2-M sub-Neptunes D. Hidalgo, E. Pallé, R. Alonso et al. 2020A&A...636A..89H
47 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. A super-Earth planet orbiting HD 79211 (GJ 338 B) E. González-Álvarez, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, J. A. Caballero et al. 2020A&A...637A..93G
46 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Characterization of the nearby ultra-compact multiplanetary system YZ Ceti S. Stock, J. Kemmer, S. Reffert et al. 2020A&A...636A.119S
45 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Dynamical characterization of the multiple planet system GJ 1148 and prospects of habitable exomoons around GJ 1148 b T. Trifonov, M. H. Lee, M. Kürster et al. 2020A&A...638A..16T
44 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Radial velocities and activity indicators from cross-correlation functions with weighted binary masks M. Lafarga, I. Ribas, C. Lovis et al. 2020A&A...636A..36L
43 Modelling the He I triplet absorption at 10 830 Å in the atmosphere of HD 209458 b M. Lampón, M. López-Pueras, L. M. Lara et al. 2020A&A...636A..13L
42 Is there Na I in the atmosphere of HD 209458b?. Effect of the centre-to-limb variation and Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in transmission spectroscopy studies N. Casasayas-Barris, E. Pallé, F. Yan et al. 2020A&A...635A.206C
41 Stellar atmospheric parameters of FGK-type stars from high-resolution optical and near-infrared CARMENES spectra E. Marfil, H. M. Tabernero, D. Montes et al. 2020MNRAS.492.5470M
40 Ionized calcium in the atmospheres of two ultra-hot exoplanets WASP-33b and KELT-9b F. Yan, N. Casasayas-Barris, K. Molaverdikhani et al. 2019A&A...632A..69Y
39 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The He I triplet at 10830 Å across the M dwarf sequence B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla, L. Hildebrandt et al. et al. 2019A&A...632A..24F
38 A giant exoplanet orbiting a very-low-mass star challenges planet formation models J. C. Morales, A. J. Mustill, I. Ribas et al. 2019Sci...365.1441M
37 Water vapor detection in the transmission spectra of HD 209458 b with the CARMENES NIR channel A. Sánchez-López, F. J. Alonso-Floriano, M. López-Puertas et al. 2019A&A...630A..53S
36 He I λ10830 Å in the transmission spectrum of HD 209458 b F. J. Alonso-Floriano, I. A. G. Snellen, S. Czesla et al. 2019A&A...629A.110A
35 Stellar activity analysis of Barnard's Star: very slow rotation and evidence for long-term activity cycle B. Toledo-Padrón, J. I. González Hernández, C. Rodríguez-López et al. 2019MNRAS.488.5145T
34 Planetary system around the nearby M dwarf GJ 357 including a transiting, hot, Earth-sized planet optimal for atmospheric characterization R. Luque, E. Pallé, D. Kossakowski et al. 2019A&A...628A..39L
33 Atmospheric characterization of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-2b/KELT-20b. Detection of Ca II, Fe II, Na I, and the Balmer series of H (Hα, Hβ, and Hγ) with high-dispersion transit spectroscopy N. Casasayas-Barris, E. Pallé,F. Yan et al. 2019A&A...628A...9C
32 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines V. M. Passegger, A. Schweitzer, D. Shulyak et al. 2019A&A...627A.161P
31 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Detection of a mini-Neptune around LSPM J2116+0234 and refinement of orbital parameters of a super-Earth around GJ 686 (BD+18 3421) S. Lalitha, D. Baroch, J. C. Morales et al. 2019A&A...627A.116L
30 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Two temperate Earth-mass planet candidates around Teegarden's Star M. Zechmeister, S. Dreizler, I. Ribas et al. 2019A&A...627A..49Z
29 Magnetic fields in M dwarfs from the CARMENES survey D. Shulyak, A. Reiners, E. Nagel et al. 2019A&A...626A..86S
28 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Different roads to radii and masses of the target stars A. Schweitzer, V. M. Passegger, C. Cifuentes et al. 2019A&A...625A..68S
27 Gliese 49: activity evolution and detection of a super-Earth. A HADES and CARMENES collaboration M. Perger, G. Scandariato, I. Ribas et al. 2019A&A...624A.123P
26 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Chromospheric modeling of M 2-3 V stars with PHOENIX D. Hintz, B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla et al. 2019A&A...623A.136H
25 Detection and characterization of an ultra-dense sub-Neptunian planet orbiting the Sun-like star K2-292 R. Luque, G. Nowak, E. Pallé et al. 2019A&A...623A.114L
24 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Activity indicators at visible and near-infrared wavelengths R. Schöfer, S. V. Jeffers, A. Reiners et al. 2019A&A...623A..44S
23 Detection and Doppler monitoring of K2-285 (EPIC 246471491), a system of four transiting planets smaller than Neptune E. Pallé, G. Nowak, R. Luque et al. 2019A&A...623A..41P
22 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Period search in Hα, Na I D, and Ca II IRT lines B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla, J. H. M. M. Schmitt et al. 2019A&A...623A..24F
21 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The enigmatic planetary system GJ 4276: one eccentric planet or two planets in a 2:1 resonance? E. Nagel, S. Czesla, J. H. M. M. Schmitt et al. 2019A&A...622A.153N
20 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. IV. New rotation periods from photometric time series E. Díez Alonso, J. A. Caballero, D. Montes et al. 2019A&A...621A.126D
19 Multiple water band detections in the CARMENES near-infrared transmission spectrum of HD 189733 b F. J. Alonso-Floriano, A. Sánchez-López, I. A. G. Snellen et al. 2019A&A...621A..74A
18 Ground-based detection of an extended helium atmosphere in the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-69b L. Nortmann, E. Pallé, M. Saltz et al. 2018Sci...362.1388N
17 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The warm super-Earths in twin orbits around the mid-type M dwarfs Ross 1020 (GJ 3779) and LP 819-052 (GJ 1265) R. Luque, G. Nowak, E. Pallé et al. 2018A&A...620A.171L
16 Detection of He I λ10830 Å absorption on HD 189733 b with CARMENES high-resolution transmission spectroscopy M. Salz, S. Czesla, P. C. Schneider et al. 2018A&A...620A..97S
15 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Nine new double-line spectroscopic binary stars D. Baroch, J. C. Morales, I. Ribas. et al. 2018A&A...619A..32B
14 A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard's star I. Ribas, M. Tuomi, A. Reiners et al. 2018Natur.563..365R
13 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. A Neptune-mass planet traversing the habitable zone around HD 180617 A. Kaminski, T. Trifonov, J. A. Caballero et al. 2018A&A...618A.115K
12 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Wing asymmetries of Hα, Na I D, and He I lines B. Fuhrmeister, S. Czesla, J. H. M. M. Schmitt et al. 2018A&A...615A..14F
11 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy V. M. Passegger, A. Reiners, S. V. Jeffers et al. 2018A&A...615A...6P
10 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Radial-velocity variations of active stars in visual-channel spectra L. Tal-Or, M. Zechmeister, A. Reiners et al. 2018A&A...614A.122T
9 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. III. Rotation and activity from high-resolution spectroscopic observations S. V. Jeffers, P. Schöfer, A. Lamert et al. 2018A&A...614A..76J
8 The CARMENES Search for Exoplanets around M Dwarfs. A Low-mass Planet in the Temperate Zone of the Nearby K2-18 P. Sarkis, T. Henning, M. Kürster et al. 2018AJ....155..257S
7 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars A. Reiners, M. Zechmeister, J. A. Caballero et al. 2018A&A...612A..49R
6 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. First visual-channel radial-velocity measurements and orbital parameter updates of seven M-dwarf planetary systems T. Trifonov, M. Kürster, M. Zechmeister et al. 2018A&A...609A.117T
5 Spectrum radial velocity analyser (SERVAL). High-precision radial velocities and two alternative spectral indicators M. Zechmeister, A. Reiners, P. J. Amado et al. 2018A&A...609A..12Z
4 The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. HD147379 b: A nearby Neptune in the temperate zone of an early-M dwarf A. Reiners, I. Ribas, M. Zechmeister et al. 2018A&A...609L...5R
3 Efficient scheduling of astronomical observations. Application to the CARMENES radial-velocity survey A. Garcia-Piquer, J. C. Morales, I. Ribas et al. 2017A&A...604A..87G
2 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. II. High-resolution imaging with FastCam M. Cortés-Contreras, V. J. S. Béjar, J. A. Caballero et al. 2017A&A...597A..47C
1 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS F. J. Alonso-Floriano, J. C. Morales, J. A. Caballero et al. 2015A&A...577A.128A

See also other publications outside the CARMENES consortium:



SPIE contributions

Title Authors ADS link
CARMENES: high-resolution spectra and precise radial velocities in the red and infrared A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, I. Ribas et al. 2018SPIE10702E..0WQ
Two Fabry-Pérots and two calibration units for CARMENES S. Schäfer, E. W. Guenther, A. Reiners et al. 2018SPIE10702E..76S
Physical modeling of echelle spectrographs: the CARMENES case study M. Tala Pinto, A. Chanumolu, A. Quirrenbach et al. 2018SPIE10705E..1UP
CARMENES: an overview six months after first light A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, J. A. Caballero et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..12Q
CARMENES: the VIS channel spectrograph in operation W. Seifert, W. Xu, O. Stahl et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..65S
CARMENES: interlocks or the importance of process visualization and system diagnostics in complex astronomical instruments J. Helmling, K. Wagner, L. Hernández et al. 2016SPIE.9908E..6BH
CARMENES: how to achieve the full AIV at system level of a cryo-instrument in nine months S. Becerril, M. C. Cárdenas, P. J. Amado et al. 2016SPIE.9910E..0QB
CARMENES: data flow J. A. Caballero, J. Guàrdia, M. López del Fresno et al. 2016SPIE.9910E..0EC
CARMENES: management of a schedule-driven project M. L. García-Vargas, J. A. Caballero, A. Pérez-Calpena et al. 2016SPIE.9911E..0PG
CARMENES: system engineering A. Pérez-Calpena, W. Seifert, P. J. Amado et al. 2016SPIE.9911E..20P
CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph cooling system AIV: thermo-mechanical performance of the instrument S. Becerril, E. Mirabet, J.-L. Lizon et al. 2016SPIE.9912E..62B
CARMENES: instrument control software suite J. Colomé, J. Guàrdia, H.-J. Hagen et al. 2016SPIE.9913E..34C
CARMENES instrument overview A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, J. A. Caballero et al. 2014SPIE.9147E..1FQ
CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler Á. García-Piquer, J. Guàrdia, J. Colomé et al. 2014SPIE.9152E..21G
CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results E. Mirabet, P. Carvas, J.-L. Lizon et al. 2014SPIE.9151E..3YM
Characterizing U-Ne hollow cathode lamps at near-infrared wavelengths for the CARMENES survey L. F. Sarmiento, A. Reiners, U. Seemann et al. 2014SPIE.9147E..54S
Building a fibre link for CARMENES J. Stürmer, O. Stahl, C. Schwab et al. 2014SPIE.9151E..52S
CARMENES. I: instrument and survey overview A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, W. Seifert et al. 2012SPIE.8446E..0RQ
CARMENES. II: optical and opto-mechanical design W. Seifert, M. A. Sánchez Carrasco, W. Xu et al. 2012SPIE.8446..E33
CARMENES. III: an innovative and challenging cooling system for an ultra-stable NIR spectrograph S. Becerril, J.-L. Lizon, M. C. Cárdenas et al. 2012SPIE.8450E..4LB
CARMENES. IV: instrument control software J. Guàrdia, J. Colomé, I. Ribas et al. 2012SPIE.8451E..2SG
CARMENES. V: non-cryogenic solutions for YJH-band NIR instruments P. J. Amado, R. Lenzen, M. C. Cárdenas et al. 2012SPIE.8450E..1UA
CARMENES: Calar Alto high-resolution search for M dwarfs with exo-earths with a near-infrared Echelle spectrograph A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, H. Mandel et al. 2010SPIE.7735E..37Q
Comprehensive transient-state study for CARMENES-NIR high thermal stability S. Becerril, M. A. Sánchez, M. C. Cárdenas et al. 2010SPIE.7735E..95B


PhD theses

PhD
Name Title Supervisor University Date
John B. P. Strachan ... Anglada-Escudé Queen Mary University of London [201X]
Sepideh Sadegi Improving the Doppler detection of planets around M dwarfs and K giants using spectral information Reffert, Quirrenbach, Kürster Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg [2019]
Patrick Schöfer Activity of M Dwarfs in the CARMENES sample Reiners & Dreizler Georg-August-Universität Göttingen [2018]
Evangelos Nagel Determination of atmospheric parameters in M dwarf stars Schmitt Universität Hamburg [2017]
Enrique Díez-Alonso Determinación de periodos de rotación de estrellas enanas de tipo espectral M y búsqueda y caracterización de sistemas planetarios con técnicas fotométricas Montes & de Cos Juez Universidad Complutense de Madrid Jul. 2019
Marcelo
Tala Pinto
Perspectives of the radial velocity method: physical modeling of the wavelength solution & exoplanetary detections around giant stars Quirrenbach Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Jul. 2019
Luis F. Sarmiento Hollow cathode lamps characterization Reiners & Huke Georg-August-Universität Göttingen [2017]
Florian F. Bauer Radial velocities in low mass stars Reiners & Jeffers Georg-August-Universität Göttingen [Dec. 2016]
Vera M. Passegger Characterisation of star-planet systems Reiners & Jeffers Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Apr. 2017
Zaira M. Berdiñas Radial velocity fiber-fed spectrographs towards the discovery of compact planets and pulsations on M stars Amado & Anglada-Escudé Universidad de Granada [Nov. 2016]
Miriam Cortés-Contreras CARMENES-UCM: scientific preparation, multiplicity, chromospheric activity and kinematics Caballero & Montes Universidad Complutense de Madrid Nov. 2016
F. Javier Alonso-Floriano CARMENES science preparation: characterization of M dwarfs with low-resolution spectroscopy and search for low-mass wide companions to young stars Montes & Caballero Universidad Complutense de Madrid Nov. 2015
Sebastian Schäfer Fabry-Pérot etalons for high precision radial velocity calibration Reiners & Dreizler Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Apr. 2014

Besides, 15+3 MSc and 4+1 BSc theses are listed in the Private area



Deprecated links

Links to conference proceedings tabulated by ADS, The M-dwarf exoplanet encyclopaedia and past conferences, workshops, schools and seminars related to CARMENES (until 2016)